Biomimiq’s portfolio of human skin equivalents (HSEs) is based on more than 25 years of academic skin tissue engineering captured in over 200 peer-reviewed scientific papers. Below you find a selection of the most relevant papers to our current commercial activities.

Healthy human skin equivalents

Effects of serially passaged fibroblasts on dermal and epidermal morphogenesis in human skin equivalents. Janson D, Rietveld M, Willemze R, El Ghalbzouri A. Biogerontology. 2013 Mar 16. PubMed PMID: 23504375.


Replacement of animal-derived collagen matrix by human fibroblast-derived dermal matrix for human skin equivalent products. El Ghalbzouri A, Commandeur S, Rietveld MH, Mulder AA, Willemze R. Biomaterials. 2009 Jan;30(1):71-8. PubMed PMID: 18838164.


Endothelial network formed with human dermal microvascular endothelial cells in autologous multicellular skin substitutes. Ponec M, El Ghalbzouri A, Dijkman R, Kempenaar J, van der Pluijm G, Koolwijk P. Angiogenesis. 2004;7(4):295-305. PubMed PMID: 15886873.


Crucial role of fibroblasts in regulating epidermal morphogenesis. El Ghalbzouri A, Lamme E, Ponec M. Cell Tissue Res. 2002 Nov;310(2):189-99. PubMed PMID: 12397374.


Skin constructs for replacement of skin tissues for in vitro testing. Ponec M. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2002 Nov 1;54 Suppl 1:S19-30. Review. PubMed PMID: 12460713.


Lack of desquamation - the Achilles heel of the reconstructed epidermis. Ponec M, Kempenaar J, Weerheim A. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2002 Oct;24(5):263-72. PubMed PMID: 18498519.


Effect of fibroblasts on epidermal regeneration. El Ghalbzouri A, Gibbs S, Lamme E, Van Blitterswijk CA, Ponec M. Br J Dermatol. 2002 Aug;147(2):230-43. PubMed PMID: 12174092.


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Skin Aging

Marine-derived nutrient improves epidermal and dermal structure and prolongs the life span of reconstructed human skin equivalents. Rietveld M, Janson D, Siamari R, Vicanova J, Andersen MT, El Ghalbzouri A. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2012. PubMed PMID: 22938006.


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Barrier, lipids and basement membrane

Nature versus nurture: does human skin maintain its stratum corneum lipid properties in vitro? Thakoersing VS, Danso MO, Mulder A, Gooris G, El Ghalbzouri A, Bouwstra JA. Exp Dermatol. 2012 Nov;21(11):865-70. PubMed PMID: 23163653.


Unraveling barrier properties of three different in-house human skin equivalents. Thakoersing VS, Gooris GS, Mulder A, Rietveld M, El Ghalbzouri A, Bouwstra JA. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2012 Jan;18(1):1-11. PubMed PMID: 21902617.


Basement membrane reconstruction in human skin equivalents is regulated by fibroblasts and/or exogenously activated keratinocytes. El Ghalbzouri A, Jonkman MF, Dijkman R, Ponec M. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Jan;124(1):79-86. PubMed PMID: 15654956.


Diffusible factors released by fibroblasts support epidermal morphogenesis and deposition of basement membrane components. El Ghalbzouri A, Ponec M. Wound Repair Regen. 2004 May-Jun;12(3):359-67. PubMed PMID: 15225215.


Lipid and ultrastructural characterization of reconstructed skin models. Ponec M, Boelsma E, Weerheim A, Mulder A, Bouwstra J, Mommaas M. Int J Pharm. 2000 Aug 10;203(1-2):211-25. PubMed PMID: 10967443.


The formation of competent barrier lipids in reconstructed human epidermis requires the presence of vitamin C. Ponec M, Weerheim A, Kempenaar J, Mulder A, Gooris GS, Bouwstra J, Mommaas AM. J Invest Dermatol. 1997 Sep;109(3):348-55. PubMed PMID: 9284103.


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Skin corrosion and irritation

Leiden reconstructed human epidermal model as a tool for the evaluation of the skin corrosion and irritation potential according to the ECVAM guidelines. El Ghalbzouri A, Siamari R, Willemze R, Ponec M. Toxicol In Vitro. 2008 Aug;22(5):1311-20. PubMed PMID: 18474418.


Use of human skin recombinants as an in vitro model for testing the irritation potential of cutaneous irritants. Ponec M, Kempenaar J. Skin Pharmacol. 1995;8(1-2):49-59. PubMed PMID: 7786525.


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Wound healing

Fibroblasts facilitate re-epithelialization in wounded human skin equivalents. El Ghalbzouri A, Hensbergen P, Gibbs S, Kempenaar J, van der Schors R, Ponec. M. Lab Invest. 2004 Jan;84(1):102-12. PubMed PMID: 14631386.


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Skin cancer

Epidermal growth factor receptor activation and inhibition in 3D in vitro models of normal skin and human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Commandeur S, van Drongelen V, de Gruijl FR, El Ghalbzouri A. Cancer Sci. 2012 Dec;103(12):2120-6. PubMed PMID: 22974223.


Functional characterization of cancer-associated fibroblasts of human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Commandeur S, Ho SH, de Gruijl FR, Willemze R, Tensen CP, El Ghalbzouri A. Exp Dermatol. 2011 Sep;20(9):737-42. PubMed PMID: 21615509.


An in vitro three-dimensional model of primary human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Commandeur S, de Gruijl FR, Willemze R, Tensen CP, El Ghalbzouri A. Exp Dermatol. 2009 Oct;18(10):849-56. PubMed PMID: 19469895.


Skin equivalent: an attractive model to evaluate early melanoma metastasis. Dekker SK, van Doorn R, Kempenaar J, Gruis NA, Vermeer BJ, Ponec M. Melanoma Res. 2000 Apr;10(2):127-40. PubMed PMID: 10803713.


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Genetic skin diseases

Recessive epidermolysis bullosa simplex phenotype reproduced in vitro: ablation of keratin 14 is partially compensated by keratin 17. El Ghalbzouri A, Jonkman M, Kempenaar J, Ponec M. Am J Pathol. 2003 Nov;163(5):1771-9. PubMed PMID: 14578178.


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Bacterial skin infections

Three-dimensional human skin equivalent as a tool to study Acinetobacter baumannii colonization. de Breij A, Haisma EM, Rietveld M, El Ghalbzouri A, van den Broek PJ, Dijkshoorn L, Nibbering PH. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 May;56(5):2459-64. PubMed PMID: 22290957.


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Dermal scaffolds

The use of PEGT/PBT as a dermal scaffold for skin tissue engineering. El Ghalbzouri A, Lamme EN, van Blitterswijk C, Koopman J, Ponec M. Biomaterials. 2004 Jul;25(15):2987-96. PubMed PMID: 14967531.

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