Full Thickness Skin Model (FTM)
The healthy full thickness model (FTM) is generated by seeding primary human keratinocytes on a collagen matrix seeded with primary human fibroblasts. The epidermal keratinocytes are induced to proliferate and differentiate. The dermal matrix provides a functional microenvironment closely resembling native extracellular matrix, thereby stimulating the development of a fully differentiated epidermis. Biomimiq’s FTM is often successfully used to mimic skin diseases in vitro, by modulating the origin and genetic make-up of the epidermal and/or dermal cells incorporated in the model. The FTM can be used for many research purposes, including studies on wound healing, dermal-epidermal interactions, and on the effect of external stimuli and chemical insults on the skin.
Dermal and epidermal cell types
The full thickness skin model (FTM) is generated by culturing primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes air-exposed on a collagen matrix seeded with primary normal human dermal fibroblasts. A variety of epidermal and dermal cells can be cultured in the FTM to study a specific functional human skin response.
Like healthy human skin, the epidermis of Biomimiq’s FTM skin models consist of about eight viable epidermal cell layers. The FTM epidermis displays normal stratification into a basal layer (stratum basale), spinous layer (stratum spinosum), granular layer (stratum granulosum) and outer corneal layer (stratum corneum).
Proliferation rates in Biomimiq’s full-thickness models (FTMs) are normalized in vitro: approximately 15% of the basal epidermal cells are in a proliferative state.
Full thickness models (FTMs) are cultured in vitro with a normal epidermal differentiation pattern. Suprabasal early differentiation markers (e.g. keratin 1, keratin 10) are restricted to the suprabasal layer of the epidermis and absent from the basal layer. Terminal differentiation (e.g. involucrin, loricrin) is found in the subcorneal granular layers of the epidermis. Epidermal activation and stress-related proteins (e.g. keratin 17) are not present in FTMs, reflecting their normalized and non-activated state in vitro.
Full thickness models (FTMs) represent the human skin, including functional basement membrane proteins (e.g. laminin 332, collagen type IV).
Biomimiq’s full thickness model (FTM) is the perfect in vitro tool for a large variety of skin research topics, including but not limited to:
- Wound healing
- Scar formation
- Pigmentation and tanning
- Skin infections (e.g. bacterial, fungal, parasitic)